Monday, December 10, 2007

Grant for Enhancing Marketing Skills of SMEs

Financial Assistance
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC):
Grant for Enhancing Marketing Skills of SMEs

Objective
To provide assistance to SMEs to enhance their employees' marketing skills through short-term courses in areas such as marketing strategies and planning, pricing, distribution, development of brand, merchandising and customer services, thus enabling SMEs to compete in domestic and export market.












Eligibility criteria

Business enterprise based on the definition of SMEs [Link];

Companies incorporated under the Companies Act 1965 (CA1965) or businesses incorporated under the Registration of Business Ordinance 1956 (RBO1956);

At least 60% of equity are held by Malaysians;and

Possess valid premise license






Eligible sector / Types of financing

Manufacturing and Manufacturing related services; and

Services (excluding insurance and financial services)


Type of assistance / Form of financing
Assistance is given in the form of a matching grant where 50% of the cost of training is borne by the Government and the remainder by the applicant. For enterprise in the manufacturing sector, businesses incorporated under RBO1956, may eligible up to 80 percent of the approved costs.


Eligible expenses
Sales performance Training
Customer Services Training
Marketing



Application procedure
Applications to be submitted to SMIDEC.

Contact
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC)
Aras 20, West Wing Menara MATRADE
Jalan Khidmat Usaha
Off, Jalan Duta, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 03-6207 6000
Fax: 03-6201 6564
Website: www.smidec.gov.my

or

Institute Global Management
Tel : 03-80240060
Fax: 03-80240086
Website: www.igm.edu.my

Matching Grant for Business Start-ups

Financial Assistance
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC):
Matching Grant for Business Start-ups

Objective
To provide assistance in the form of matching grant to start up a business in the following sectors:
Manufacturing and Manufacturing related services; and
Services (excluding insurance and financial services)












Eligibility criteria

Business enterprise based on the definition of SMEs [Link];

Companies incorporated under the Companies Act 1965 (CA1965) or businesses incorporated under the Registration of Business Ordinance 1956 (RBO1956);

At least 60% of equity are held by Malaysians;and

Possess valid premise license







Type of assistance / Form of financing
The maximum grant allocated per company is RM40,000 whereby 50% of the total project cost is borne by the Government and the balance is borne by the applicant. For businesses in the manufacturing under RBO1956, may eligible for assistance up to 80% of the approved cost.


Eligible expenses
Expenses incurred directly in staring up a business which include among others carrying out feasibility studies, rental of equipment, development of prototype and product sampling and testing etc.


Priority sectors
Manufacturing or intend to manufacture product(s) or involve in activities or services related to manufacturing promoted under the Promotion of Investment Act (PIA) 1986, to companies participate in the Industrial Linkage Programme (ILP)

Application procedure
Applications to be submitted to SMIDEC.

Contact
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC)
Aras 20, West Wing Menara MATRADE
Jalan Khidmat Usaha
Off, Jalan Duta, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 03-6207 6000
Fax: 03-6201 6564
Website: www.smidec.gov.my

Matching Grant for Certification and Quality Management System

Financial Assistance
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC):
Matching Grant for Certification and Quality Management System

Objective
To provide assistance in the form of matching grant to obtain Certification and Quality Management System by SMEs involve in the following sector:
Manufacturing and Manufacturing related services; and
Services (excluding insurance and financial services)












Eligibility criteria

Business enterprise based on the definition of SMEs [Link]

Companies incorporated under the Companies Act 1965 (CA1965) or businesses incorporated under the Registration of Business Ordinance 1956 (RBO1956);

At least 60% of equity are held by Malaysians;and

Possess valid premise license







Type of assistance / Form of financing
The maximum grant allocated per company is RM250,000 where 50% of the project cost is borne by the Government and the remainder is borne by the applicant


Eligible expenses

ISO 13485, ISO 14000, ISO22000, Product Certification

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

Halal Ceritfication & MS1500:2004, TS 16949)

Quality Improvement Practice , Good Manufacturing Practice

Occupational safety and health management system (OSHA)

Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS)

Good Agriculture Practice (GAP), Good Hygiene Practice (GHP)

Regulatory Impact Practice (RIA), British Retailers' Consortium

Factory Renovation compliance to Certificaition Requirements

Other related cost to comply with the requirements of Standard and Certification




Application procedure
Applications to be submitted to SMIDEC

Contact
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC)
Aras 20, West Wing Menara MATRADE
Jalan Khidmat Usaha
Off, Jalan Duta, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 03-6207 6000
Fax: 03-6201 6564
Website: www.smidec.gov.my

SMALL & MEDIUM INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

SMALL & MEDIUM INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
Grant - Loan Facility
INTRODUCTION
Grant and Loan facility (GLF) is a joint facility between SMIDEC and SME Bank. Assistance is given in the form of grant (SMIDEC) and loan (SME Bank). SMIDEC will cover up to 50% of the approved projectcost and 45% will be financed by SME Bank. SMEs are required to contribute for remaining 5%.
Objective
To Provide assistance for SMEs in the form of grant (SMIDEC) and loan (SME Bank) for:
• Specific cost for business start-up
• Product and process improvement
• Certification and quality management systems
• Enhancing product packaging
• Development and promotion of Halal products

Eligible Sectors
• Manufacturing
• Manufacturing related services
• Services (excluding insurance and financial services)


Qualifying Criteria
• SMEs incorprated under the Companies Act 1965 or Registration of Businesses Act 1965 with annual sales turnover of not exceeding RM25 million and full time employees not exceeding 150
• For services sector, SMEs incorprated under the Registration of Businesses Act 1965 with an annual sales turnover of niot exceeding 50.
• At least 60% equity held by Malaysians.
• Possess valid business premise
• Aviable project with growth potential and is able to prove loan repayment ability.
• Financing is based on joint approval between SMIDEC and SME Bank.
Limit, Nature, Tenure, Margin of Financing and Profit Rate for Financing
i) Terms and conditions applied are based on standard guidelines of SMIDEC and SME Bank with minimum financing of RM20,000.
ii) The above financing can also be packaged with working capital financing (fixed/revolving), subject to item (i)
iii) Interest /Profit Rate : 4% - 6% per annum based on standard guidelines of SME Bank's loan fund.
Processing Fee
• Based on standard guidelines of SME Bank.
Application
Application can be made using the Grant and Loan Facility (GLF)
Form which can be obtained free of charge from SME Bank or or download here:
Application Form Grant and Loan Facility (GLF)

Enquiry

Further information on this Scheme can be obtained from:

Menara SME Bank,
Jalan Sultan Ismail,
Peti Surat 12352,
50774 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia

Tel : (603) 2615 2020, (603) 2615 2828
Fax: (603) 2692 8520, (603) 2698 1748
Website: http://www.smebank.com.my

or

Small and Medium Industries Development
Corporation (SMIDEC)
Aras 20, West Wing, Menara MATRADE
Jalan Khidmat Usaha, Off Jalan Duta
50480 Kuala Lumpur
Tel No: 03-6207 6000
Fax No: 03-6201 6564
E-mail : info@smidec.gov.my
Hotline : 1-300-88-1801
Website www.smidec.gov.my











SMALL & MEDIUM INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

SMALL & MEDIUM INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

Soft Loan for Small and Medium Industries
Scope
Financing existing as well as new start-up in project, fixed assets and working capital financing.
Loan Size
Minimum : RM50,000
Maximum :
• Project Financing - RM5 million
• Fixed Assets Financing - RM1 million ; and
• Working Capital Financing - RM1 million
Eligibility
• SMEs incorporated under the Companies Act 1965 or Registration of Business Ordinance 1956.
• Subsidiaries of public-listed companies with shareholding not exceeding 20 per cent.
• At least 60% equity held by Malaysians
• Possess valid premise license

Eligible Expenses
• Project, fixed assets and working capital financing;
• Costs incurred for initial store renovation and upgrade of store display for retail trade;
• Working capital for companies with confirmed contract from GLCs, MNCs and the Government including its agencies;
Percentage of Financing
Fix Assets
• Up to 85 per cent of the cost for new assets (90 per cent for Bumiputera); and
• Up to 65 per cent for used/reconditioned equipment which shall not be more than 5 years old.
Working Capital Financing
• Up to 75 per cent of the working capital requirements (80 per cent for Bumiputera).
• For revolving credit and factoring, up to 80 per cent of the working capital requirements
Repayment, Including Grace Period
• Land and Building - Up to 15 years including grace period of up to 2 years.
• Machinery and Equipment – up to 6 years including grace period of up to 1 year.
• IT Equipment - Up to 4 years including grace period of up to 1 year.
• Term Working Capital - Up to 3 ½ years including grace period of up to 6 months.
• Revolving Working Capital - subject to annual review.

Interest rate
4.0% p.a.
Securitisation
• Debenture on the machinery/equipment financed;
• Charge on the land and building financed; and
• Guarantee by the directors and/or shareholders.
• Assignment of contract proceeds from MNCs, GLCs and Government for factoring and revolving credit.
• Guarantee from CGC.
Special Window for Women Entrepreneurs
Approved Industrial Sites
For further information, please contact:
HEAD OFFICE

Bangunan MIDF
195A, Jalan Tun Razak
50400 Kuala Lumpur
P.O. Box 12110
50939 Kuala Lumpur

Tel: 03-2161 0066, 2161 1166
Fax: 03-2161 5973, 2161 3906, 2161 3908
E-mail : inquiry@midf.com.my
Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC)
Aras 20, West Wing, Menara MATRADE
Jalan Khidmat Usaha, Off Jalan Duta
50480 Kuala Lumpur
Tel No: 03-6207 6000
Fax No: 03-6201 6564
E-mail : info@smidec.gov.my
Hotline : 1-300-88-1801
Website www.smidec.gov.my













Product Certification Scheme

Product Certification Scheme

Product Certification is offered to manufacturer who wishes to have its product certified to the requirements of a Malaysian or International Standard. Participation in this scheme is voluntary for most products. However, government regulatory authorities may require mandatory certification for certain products.

After successful application, the applicant is given a licence to mark the certified product with the "MS" certification mark. However for most regulated products, it is mandotory to affix the SIRIM labels on the products. The presence of the Label attests that the product meets quality requirements of the specified standard or specification. It also provides consumer an assurance of performance, safety and reliability as well as it demonstrates an effective system for production processes.

Other Product Certification Category

Product Listing Scheme
This scheme is operated along similar lines to the Product Certification Scheme. However. it offers a cost-effective in the absence of a national or international standard for the product. In this case, the product can be certified to association or industry standards as well as acceptable customer specifications.

Pre Application fee of RM200 is payable upon application to Product Listing Scheme. Acceptance into this scheme has to be apporved by SIRIM QAS International's Certification Panel.

Modular Coordination Verification Scheme
This is a concept of coordination of dimension and space, in which, buildings and components are dimensioned and positioned in terms of basic unit or module, known as '1M' which is equivalent to 100 mm. It is internationally accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and many other countries including Malaysia.

Batch Certification Scheme
This Scheme provides third party certification of products and is based on the ISO certification system no. 7, where a batch of product is sample tested and a certificate of conformity and/or labels are issued to the batch. The certification is based on a Malaysian Standard, an International Standard, an International Standard or a foreign standard of a national standards organisation.

IECEE CB Scheme
It is based on the use of the International (IEC) Standards. The CB Scheme utilizes CB Test Certificates to attest that the product samples have successfully passed the appropriate test and are in compliance with the requirements of the relevant IEC Standards and with the declared national differences of various countries...read more
Fire Listing Scheme
Currently, certification on several passive fire protection products such as fire resistant doorsets and roller shutters is being carried out by SIRIM QAS International Sdn. Bhd. These products are certified as a system which includes components such as the door leaves, frames and ironmongeries. Due to this "system" certification, the products certified must be sold with the exact same components or of equivalent or better grade than those used during testing.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Certification Scheme
Ensuring that electrical and electronic products/equipment are safe and do not interfere with the normal operation of other equipment is the basis of the emc Scheme. With the Scheme, which can be best demonstrated through independent third-party certification, manufacturers will be able to apply the emc-mark.


For Enquiries Please Contact

603 5544 6403 603 5544 6466

Email : fauziah_ahmad@sirim.my


 




Friday, December 07, 2007

Penuaian air di Malaysia

Penuaian air di Malaysia

Oleh: NURUL A'DILA ABD. RAZAK dan ABDUL RASHID ABDUL AZIZ

MAC lalu, Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi mencadangkan supaya diadakan undang-undang mewajibkan pemasangan sistem penuaian air hujan bagi kegunaan domestik sebagai salah satu langkah untuk mengatasi krisis bekalan air negara pada masa hadapan. Cadangan tersebut ialah pemasangan sistem tuaian air hujan bagi beberapa jenis bangunan tertentu termasuk bangunan kediaman.

Hakikatnya krisis air bukan sahaja berlaku di negara kita, malah seluruh dunia menghadapi masalah yang sama. Amaran yang dikeluarkan oleh ahli kaji cuaca seluruh dunia bahawa dalam masa sepuluh tahun akan datang, peningkatan suhu bumi akan berlaku.

Hal ini sudah pasti akan meninggalkan kesan ke atas bekalan air seluruh dunia terutamanya di kawasan beriklim panas dan sederhana, dan sudah pastinya Malaysia juga tidak akan terkecuali.

Sebenarnya, terdapat pelbagai kaedah yang boleh digunakan untuk menuai air hujan. Seperti di negara-negara luar, pelbagai sistem dipraktikkan sama ada sistem tuaian ringkas mahupun sistem tuaian kompleks. Kaedah paling ringkas tetapi popular ialah penggunaan tong kecil yang ditempatkan di laman rumah atau taman-taman mini.

Kaedah ini diamalkan di beberapa negara seperti di Jerman, Jepun, dan juga Thailand dan ia merupakan kaedah yang paling murah dari segi kos serta menjimatkan ruang. Kaedah tuaian ini hanya memerlukan bahan-bahan seperti tong kecil untuk penyimpanan air hujan, paip air hujan untuk menyalurkan air dari bumbung ke dalam tong, kepala paip untuk tujuan pengagihan air dari tong kepada pengguna, dan juga pelapik tong air.

Bagaimanapun, air hujan yang dituai melalui kaedah tersebut hanya digunakan untuk menyiram pokok di taman-taman kecil sahaja.

Di Sri Lanka pula, penggunaan tangki ferosimen adalah lebih popular. Kaedah ini digunakan secara meluas oleh penduduk di kawasan pedalaman khasnya. Terdapat dua jenis tangki ferosimen, iaitu tangki bawah tanah dan juga tangki aras tanah. Kebiasaannya, setiap jenis tangki tersebut berkapasiti 5,000 liter air. Seperti sistem sebelumnya juga, air hujan yang ditadah dari bumbung rumah akan mengalir ke paip air hujan, seterusnya dialirkan ke tangki ferosimen yang berjarak kira-kira satu atau dua meter dari rumah.

Air yang disimpan dalam tangki akan diagihkan kepada pengguna melalui kepala paip dan juga paip berpam ( bagi tangki separa dalam tanah) yang dipasang pada bahagian tertentu tangki.

Satu kelemahan sistem ini ialah kualiti air yang rendah kerana ia tidak mempunyai sistem penapisan atau penurasan air yang sistematik, sebaliknya hanya bergantung kepada kekerapan pemilik rumah mencuci paip saluran air hujan berkenaan untuk menjamin kebersihan air yang dituai.

Bagi menjamin kualiti air pula, seterusnya dijadikan sumber minuman yang selamat, air hujan yang disimpan dalam tangki akan dimasak terlebih dahulu, atau dirawat dengan menambah serbuk klorin.

Di negara-negara maju seperti Australia, Amerika Syarikat, Jerman, dan United Kingdom pula, sistem yang lebih kompleks dan lebih canggih dipraktikkan.

Contohnya, penggunaan tangki konkrit bawah tanah, tangki politen, dan tangki keluli. Dalam sistem kompleks, air hujan akan melalui beberapa proses penapisan dan rawatan untuk menghasilkan air yang bukan sahaja untuk kegunaan luar seperti menyiram pokok, membasuh kereta, dan mengepam tandas malahan air tersebut boleh diminum dan digunakan untuk memasak makanan.

Salah satu contoh sistem kompleks ialah sistem di Oregon, Ameriksa Syarikat yang menggunakan elemen-elemen termasuk tangki penyimpanan air hujan (plastik) berkapasiti 1,500 gelen, pam air untuk meningkatkan dan menurunkan tekanan air mengikut keperluan pengguna, paip PVC untuk menyambung dan menyalurkan air dalam sistem.

Walaupun sistem ini membabitkan kos yang tinggi, namun kualiti air yang dituai adalah jauh lebih baik dan selamat untuk diminum. Tambahan pula, sistem tuaian ini dapat memberikan faedah jangka panjang kepada pemiliknya.

Polisi dan sistem-sistem di atas telah banyak memberi manfaat kepada negara terlibat. Di samping dapat menangani krisis air, penuaian air hujan juga sebenarnya dapat mewujudkan perumahan mapan melalui kaedah penjimatan tenaga iaitu sumber air.

Sedar atau tidak, di Malaysia, amalan penuaian air hujan sebenarnya telah lama diamalkan oleh masyarakat kita dahulu. Contohnya, amalan mengumpul air hujan dari bumbung rumah di dalam tempayan atau bekas tembikar semasa hujan. Air yang dikumpul tersebut akan digunakan sebagai air mencuci kaki dan menyiram tanaman.

Selain air hujan, penggunaan air bumi iaitu air telaga juga telah lama diamalkan oleh masyarakat kita, khususnya mereka yang tinggal di kawasan pedalaman. Sebagai contoh, penggunaan air telaga di Pantai Timur seperti Kelantan bukanlah suatu amalan yang baru, malahan sehingga kini, penggunaan air telaga masih lagi diamalkan di kampung-kampung di negeri ini. Lebih menarik lagi, air telaga bukan sahaja untuk kegunaan luar, tetapi juga menjadi sumber air minuman yang selamat.

Tetapi sayangnya, amalan penyimpanan air hujan dan penggunaan air telaga seakan-akan telah dilupakan oleh masyarakat kita hari ini setelah wujudnya sistem paip bekalan air kerajaan.

Kita seakan-akan leka dengan kemudahan-kemudahan yang disediakan oleh pihak kerajaan sahaja dan hanya bergantung kepada pihak kerajaan semata-mata tanpa memikirkan inisiatif sendiri untuk menangani krisis air.

Adakah kita mahu tragedi buruk seperti tahun 1997/1998 berlaku kali kedua? Tepuk dada, tanya selera.

- PENULIS ialah pensyarah Pusat Pengajian Perumahan Bangunan dan Perancangan, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Bigger low-cost homes

Bigger low-cost homes

KUALA LUMPUR: Low and medium-income earners can soon look forward to owning affordable and larger homes. 

Under the Bandar Gemilang Sime Darby programme, vast tracts of plantation land in Labu in Negri Sembilan, Gurun in Kedah and Vision City in Selangor will be turned into townships with apartments, link and semi-detached houses.  

The low-rise apartments under the programme, which was launched by Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi here last night, will measure about 900 sq ft compared to the standard size of a low-cost link house, which is about 600 sq ft.  

Some of the residential units will be flexible and can be extended or expanded according to the needs of the houseowners, especially those with large families. 

For example, a two-storey cluster home, which is about 1,300 sq ft, can be extended to 1,600 sq ft when the family grows bigger.  

Abdullah, who was the guest-of-honour at the event, was delighted and pleased with the development project.  

"I believe it holds great promise in providing affordable homes for the people and, at the same time, raising the quality of life as well as enhancing their economic prospects," he said.  

He said the measure of a nation's progress and development was signified not just by the level of its economic growth but also by the quality of life enjoyed by its people.  

"My Government has made raising the standard and sustainability of the people's quality of life a key developmental priority." 

"For many people, comfortable and conducive housing is a key determinant of the quality of life that they enjoy," he added. 

Abdullah said the Government had been actively driving the effort together with the private sector to ensure that the lower income group was never forgotten or marginalised. 

"Indeed the government has built and continue to build thousands upon thousands of affordable homes nationwide to fulfil that vision." 

Abdullah said Sime Darby was working hard towards fulfilling its corporate social responsibility and urged the rest of the corporate world to follow suit.  

Sime Darby Berhad chairman Tun Musa Hitam said the number of units to be built at each of the three sites would depend on the demand from potential houseowners.  

He said the company aimed to create sustainable communities and was confident that the programme would be well-received by the rakyat.  

Other facilities available under programme include libraries, schools, sports fields, police stations and places of worship for major religions.  

In each of the townships, 30% of the land area will be dedicated to open space, parks and landscaped gardens. 

Saturday, November 24, 2007

WHAT IS PRODUCTION SCHEDULING?

WHAT IS PRODUCTION SCHEDULING?

Scheduling concerns the allocation of limited resources to tasks over time. Bitran [1]explained  "Production scheduling is concerned with the allocation of resources and the sequencing of tasks to produce goods and services. Although allocation and sequencing decisions are closely related, it is very difficult to model mathematically the interaction between them. However, by using a hierarchical approach, the allocation and the sequencing problems can be solved separately. The allocation problem is solved first and its results are supplied as inputs to the sequencing problem. The resource allocation problem can sometimes be solved using aggregate production planning techniques. To specify completely the input to the sequencing problem, the resulting detailed or item plan (also referred to as the master schedule) has to be disaggregated. A breakdown by component parts can be obtained in a straightforward way by using Material Requirements Planning (MRP) systems. Although MRP continues to be popular in practice, many issues still need to be resolved to make it an effective production planning tool."

Because of complexity of production scheduling there are different views of it [2].

Problem Solving Perspective views the scheduling as an optimization problem. It is the formulation of scheduling as a combinatorial optimization problem isolated form the manufacturing planning and control system place.

Decision making Perspective is the view that scheduling is a decision that a human must make. Schedulers perform a variety of tasks and use both formal and informal information to accomplish these. Schedulers must address uncertainty, manage bottlenecks, and anticipate the problems that people cause

 

Organizational Perspective: is a systems-level view that scheduling is part of the complex flow of information and decision-making that forms the manufacturing planning and control system. Such systems are typically divided into modules that perform different functions such as aggregate planning and material requirements planning

 

Production scheduling can be classified according to the following criteria [3]:

1. Flow patterns

(a) Flow shop: All the jobs have identical process flows and require the same sequence of

operations.

(b) Job shop: Jobs have different process flows, and may require significantly different sequence

of operations.

2. Processing mode

(a) Unit processing: Jobs are processed one by one.

(b) Batch processing: A number of jobs are processed together as a batch.

3. Job release pattern (job release time is the earliest time at which processing can start)

(a) Static: Jobs are (or assumed to be) released to the shop floor at time zero.

(b) Dynamic: Jobs are (or assumed to be) released to the shop floor over time.

4. Work center configuration

(a) Single machine

(b) Identical parallel machines:

(c) Uniform parallel machines:

(d) Unrelated parallel machines:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRODUCTION PLANNING AND PRODUCTION SCHEDULING

 

Barták[4] stated that "the main difference is in the resolution of the resulting plan or schedule. While the industrial planning deals with the task of finding "rough" plans for longer period of time where activities are assigned to departments etc., the industrial scheduling deals with the task of finding detail schedules for individual machines for shorter period of time. From this point of view, scheduling can be seen as a high-resolution short-term planning."

 Image

     Planning and scheduling in industry

Image

Hierarchical Planning

 

Barták[4]  also defines a new  mixed planning and scheduling approach in his paper.

 

BENEFITS OF PRODUCTION SCHEDULING

There are some goals and benefits of production scheduling:

 

  • A production schedule can determine whether delivery promises can be met and identify time periods available for preventive maintenance.
  • A production schedule gives shop floor personnel an explicit statement of what should be done so that supervisors and managers can measure their performance.
  • Minimize WIP inventory
  • Minimize average flow time through the system
  • Maximize machine and/or worker utilization
  • Minimize setup times
  • A production schedule can identify resource conflicts, control the release of jobs to the shop, and ensure that required raw materials are ordered in time.
  • Better coordination to increase productivity and minimizing operating costs.

 

 

ORDER MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING

Order management is a vital issue on make-to-order systems. Pinedo [5] illustrated the way and how an order is processed via capacity planning, scheduling, and dispatching activities to shop floor management.

Image

Key decisions in different stages of order management, production planning, andoperations scheduling (OMPPOS) process(From Kemppainen [9] which based on Pinedo [5])

 

Order management is closely related with production capacity, current production utilization level, customer priority, and due date based prizing. Some of the customers may have an agreement with the company then we can give high priority according to this agreement. Utilization of resources is done by considering these factors [5]. While accepting an order it is possible to give range of prizes based on time and current state of the production level.

 

THE GAP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

 

Application of  computer based schedules are very scarce. Pinedo[6]

In spite of the fact that during this last decade many companies have made large investments in the development as well as in the implementation of scheduling systems, not that many systems appear to be used on a regular basis. Systems, after being implemented, often remain in use for only a limited amount of time; after a while they often are, for one reason or another, ignored altogether. (p. 2151).

Real world is somehow different than idealized computer models so there are some fuzzy constraints, lack of accurate information and, sudden changes. Berlung [7] stated in their paper:  "Outcome of the scheduling process is influenced by the scheduler adding human capabilities that cannot be automated, problem-solving when the technical system fails, and negotiating between groups of employees to handle incompatible goals. Technology influences by limitations in the scheduled production system as well as the scheduling tools available. The organization, finally, influences the outcome through degree of proximity between employees, meeting structures, the schedulers' position in hierarchy and their work role interconnecting activities of different organizational parts." Also, Wiers [8] presented applicability of operations research and artificial intelligence techniques and their shortcomings in practice:

1. Robustness. Robustness refers to the extent to which a schedule will remain unchanged when the information on which a schedule is based changes. Robustness avoids nervousness in scheduling in situations with uncertainty. Most authors recognize that nervousness should be avoided as much as possible.

2. Complexity. Complexity is an oft used construct, and can be defined in many ways. In this context, complexity refers to the number of real world elements that are relevant for the scheduling problem, and the relationships between these elements. Some of the issues mentioned in this chapter are linked to the complexity of the problem, such as: oversimplification, and knowledge of the problem domain.

3. Performance measurement. The optimization criteria of many scheduling techniques do not meet the criteria used in practice. In practice, performance is often a matter of judgment by the human scheduler, and can be subject to negotiation.

4. Fixed vs. changeable input. Most scheduling techniques assume that information input is a given and cannot be changed. However, in practice, the situation is often not taken for granted: inputs, such as available capacity, might be changed if judged necessary.

5. Organizational embedding. The relationship of scheduling decision making to other parts of an organization is generally not considered in scheduling techniques.

6. Availability and accuracy of data. The scheduling process predominantly depends on the availability of accurate data. If this condition is not met, the schedule will be incorrect and cannot be executed properly.

7. Interaction with human scheduler. It is recognized by many authors that the human scheduler will remain an indispensable factor in the scheduling process. However, many techniques do not account for interaction with the human scheduler.

8. Learning from experience (artificial intelligence techniques). The intelligence that is built into artificial intelligence scheduling techniques is often not stable in practice. Therefore, these systems should learn from experience to keep their intelligence base up to date. However, most artificial intelligence scheduling techniques are not able to learn from experience, and therefore may become outdated.

9. Availability and reliability of human experts (artificial intelligence techniques). The intelligence of AI based scheduling systems sometimes comprises expertise that must be elicited from human experts. However, in many cases, this expertise cannot be adequately acquired.

 

[1] Bitran G. R., (1983),A Simulation Model for Job Shop Modeling, A. P. Sloan School of Management Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[2] Hermann, J., W., (2006) Improving Production Scheduling: Integrating Organizational, Decision-Making, and Problem-Solving Perspectives, Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Orlando, Florida

[3] Bayındır, Z., P., (2005) EIN 4333 Production and Distribution Systems class notes.

[4] Barták, R., (1999), On the Boundary of Planning and Scheduling: A Study, Proceedings of Eighteenth Workshop of the UK Planning and Scheduling Special Interest Group (PLANSIG99) Workshop,

[5] Pinedo, M. (1995), Scheduling: theory, algorithms, and systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

[6] Pinedo, M. (1992). Scheduling. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial Engineering (2nd edition). Chichester: Wiley.Interscience.

[7] Berlung, B., Karltun, J.,(2005), Human, Technological and Organizational Aspects Influencing the Production Scheduling Process, 18th International Conference on Production Research

[8]Wiers,V., (1997) ,Human-computer interaction in production scheduling-Analysis and design of decision support systems for production scheduling  tasks ,Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology Press, Ph.D. Thesis.

 [9] Kemppainen, K.,(2005) Priority Scheduling Revisited –Dominant Rules, Open Protocols, And Integrated Order Management

Machines

The grinder machine for grinding laterlite soil to powder.

Moter 3 hp. 220 v.

Easy control and safty.

Put soil upper and close the lid.

The soil will go out below.

Special model use desel machine 7.5 ph.

we can modify size and system for your request.

The mixer for mixing soil and cement with water.

Moter 3 hp. 220 v.

Size 150 liters., dimention 80cms. high 100 cms.

 

Interlocking soil cement block building

Interlocking soil cement block building

The build is beautiful and natural. The inside building is cool quite and attrective without the use of air condition. The building's low energy costs in both construction and operation, plus greatly reduced use of wood, make it environmentally benign, Because they are so simple......

interlocking soil sement block house

enclosing wall

church,temple

water flow

 

**HYDRAULIC PRESSING MACHINE**

**HYDRAULIC PRESSING MACHINE**
  • HYDRAULIC PRESSING SYSTEM FOR MAKE CEMENT BLOCKS
  • PUT CEMENT 1 PART AND SOIL 7 PART MIXED WITH WATER 10 % INSIDE THE BLOCK,COSEING AND PUSH DOWN
  • SAVE TIME AND WAGES.
  • MAKE 120 - 160 PCS. PER HOUR, 2 PCS. A TIME.
  • MOTOR 2 PHASE 3 HP. 220V.
  • EASY CONTROL AND SAVE ALL
  • THIS MODEL MAKE RECTANGULAR BLOCK
  • DESIGN AND SIZE CIMENT BLOCK CAN MAKE FOR YOUR ORDER

Interlockingblock machines

Interlockingblock machines

*HAND PRESSING MACHINES*
  • HAND PRESSING MACHINE FOR MAKE CEMENT BLOCK
  • EASY CONTROL BY ONE MAN
  • PUT CEMENT 1 PART AND SOIL 7 PARTS MIXED WITH WATER 10% INSIDE BLOCK, CLOSE THE LID AND MOVE THE HANDLE FOR PRESSING
  • SIMPLE OPERATION
  • NO ELECTRIC ,NO POLLUTION,SAVE THE EARTH, RECYCLE
  • HANDICRAFT MACHINE
  • 1 PC. PER TIME, 300 - 400 PCS. PER 8 HOURS.
  • CIMENT BLOCK HAS MORE DESIGNS FOR YOUR ORDER.

Interlocking soil cement blocks

Interlocking soil cement blocks are the specially designed for low-cost housing. The matirials is local laterlite soil 7 part and cement 1 part with a little bit water not more than 10%, mix well, and put its in cinva-ram pressing machine for pressing. .......After that take its in the open air under the roof, waiting 7-14 days -"no firing" or baking is involved.

BLOCK SIZE AND DESIGNED

. NEW BLOCK FLOWER FORNT.. SIZE12.50X25.00X10.00 CMS.
.FULL BLOCK.. SIZE12.50X25.00X10.00 CMS.
.HALF BLOCK.. SIZE 12.50X12.50X10.00 CMS.
.TANK BLOCK FOR.. 2.00 METERS TANK
.ROUND BLOCK ..SIZE 22.00 CMS., 12.00 CMS
FULL BLOCK SIZE 30.00X15.00X10.00CMS.
HALF BLOCK SIZE 15.00X15.00X10.00CMS.
BIG BLOCK SIZE 24.00X25.00X9.5 CMS.
BLOCK SIZE 12.50X25.00X10.00CMS.
SMALL BLOCK SIZE 7.00X28.00X10.00CMS.

WE CAN MAKE OTHER BLOCKS FOR YOUR ORDER

Soil test

1.Natural Moisture content 1.5-2.0%

2.Drying Shrinkage not more than 1.0%

3.Plasticity index is non-plastic

 

Block test

1.Compressive Strength is not lesser than 70 kgs./square cms. (5 blocks/28 days)

2.Compressive Strength is not less than 55 kgs./square coms/pc.

3.Durability after wit and dry 6 times must to more than 15%

Interlocking soil cement block method

Interlocking soil cement block method

How to build your house?

1.Make the local standerd foundation.

2.Array interlocking block worded like the lego system, straight walls could be build quickly and easily by placing fresh blocks in the grooves af already - lis blocks below.

3.Mixing cement and sand 1:1 with more water like creamy put it in the block.

How to make interlocking block?

**Hand pressing machine**

interlocking soil sement block house1.Inside Hand pressing machine.

enclosing wall 2.Mixing soil and cement 7:1 with a little bit water not more than 10 %.

church,temple 3. Put all matirail in to block fully.

water flow 4. Moveing the handle for pressing.

5.Moving back the handle. The block will upper.

6. Move the bock to the ground under the roof open air and waiting 7-14 days. Watering 3 days for cement setting.

 

7.For half block. We have a steel for put inside bock.

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**Hydraulic pressing machine**

1.Put all matirail in to block fully. Close and lock, push button at controller

2.Open and Move the bocks to the ground or rack under the roof open air and waiting 7-14 days. Watering 3 days for cement setting.

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